|About Daily Homework for Prelims and Mains|
|1. Make a separate notebook for this section.|
|2. Write down the questions provided daily.|
|3. Try to dig out all the facts related to given questions.|
|4. Daily revise the notes before next target|
FOR PRELIMS AND MAINS COMBINED
Coffee Connect India & Coffee Krishi Tharanga APP launched by the government
- Union Ministry of Commerce & Industry
- The Ministry has launched Coffee Connect India coffee field force app and Coffee Krishi Tharanga – digital mobile extension services project for coffee stakeholders.
- It is developed by Coffee Board of India for the overall technological advancement of the coffee sector and value chain.
Coffee Connect mobile app
- The application has been developed to ease the work of field functionaries and to improve the work efficiency.
- It provides solution by harnessing power of mobility comprising latest technology in easing whole process of field activities like digitization of coffee growers and estates with geo tagging, collecting plantation details.
- It will also help in enhancing transparency in activities of extension officers and officials, transparency in subsidy disbursement and real time report generation.
- It has been developed by Coffee Board of India in association with National Institute for Smart Government (NISG).
Coffee Krishi Tharanga Project
- It is IVR based digital mobile extension service jointly developed by Coffee Board and Precision Agriculture for Development India Foundation (PADIF).
- It is aimed at providing customised information and services to increase productivity, profitability, and environmental sustainability.
Coffee production in India and its management
- India is 6th largest coffee producer in the world with 4% share after Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia, Indonesia and Ethiopia.
- In India, coffee is cultivated in India in about 4.54 lakh hectares by 3.66 lakh coffee farmers and 98% of them are small farmers.
- Karnataka (54%), Kerala (19%) and Tamil Nadu (8%) are largest coffee producing states. India accounts for only 4-5% of world’s coffee output, but exports 70-80% of its produce.
- Italy, Russia and Germany are the top three buyers of Indian coffee.
- In India, two coffee varieties robusta (or Coffea canephora) and Coffea arabica are grown on large scale.
- Coffee Board of India Coffee Board of India is an autonomous body, functioning under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India. It was set up under an Act of Parliament in 1942.
- It focuses on research, development, extension, quality upgradation, market information, and the domestic and external promotion of Coffees of India.
India signs landmark defence pact with U.S.
- India and the United States sealed the landmark Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA) that will lead to a new generation of bilateral military partnership.
- Apart from the agreement that was signed at the end of the inaugural India-U.S. ‘2+2’ Ministerial Dialogue, both sides called on Pakistan to stop terrorist strikes on “other countries” and urged for maritime freedom in the Indo-Pacific region.
About the agreement
- Signing of a Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement that will facilitate access to advanced defence systems and enable India to optimally utilise its existing U.S.-origin platforms
- With Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA), India has concluded three of the four foundational agreements with the U.S. that had been planned for years.
- India has already signed two of them — General Security Of Military Information Agreement (GSOMIA) in 2002 and the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) in 2016.
- The COMCASA will allow the U.S. to transfer specialised equipment for encrypted communications for U.S.-origin platforms like C-17, C-130 and P-8I aircraft.
- It comes into force immediately and is valid for 10 years.
- The government had negotiated an India-specific agreement and “specific additional provisions” had been incorporated in the text to safeguard security and national interests.
- Data acquired through such systems cannot be disclosed or transferred to any person or entity without India’s consent.
- Both countries will implement the agreement in a manner consistent with the national security interests of the other
- India and the U.S. will also hold a first-ever tri-service joint exercise on the east coast of India in 2019
Role for private sector
- Ms. Sitharaman and Secretary of Defence James N. Mattis also announced their readiness to begin negotiations on an Industrial Security Annex (ISA) that would allow Indian private sector to collaborate with the U.S. defence industry.
- The GSOMIA allows sharing of classified information from the U.S. government and American companies with the Indian government and defence Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) but not with Indian private companies.
- To further defence innovation, a Memorandum of Intent was signed between the U.S. Defense Innovation Unit (DIU) and the Indian Defence Innovation Organization – Innovation for Defence Excellence (DIO-iDEX), which will look into joint projects for co-production and co-development projects through the Defense Technology and Trade Initiative (DTTI).
- India is the Partner Country in the 87th Izmir International tradeshow which begins in Turkey from Friday, September 7, 2018.
- In this tradeshow India will also be launching a mega business pavilion ‘Source India’ hosting 75 Indian companies with the aim of tie-ups in order to increase India’s exports to Turkey and other neighbouring countries.
- This is part of a series of Source India pavilions that the Trade Promotion Council of India (TPCI) is hosting in important tradeshows across the world for boosting India’s exports.
Trade Promotion Council of India (TPCI)
- TPCI is the trade and investment promotion organization of the Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commerce &Industry, Government of India, and works to open new areas for co-operation in trade and investment between India and rest of the world.
The 87th Izmir International tradeshow
- The 87th Izmir International tradeshow will be held in Izmir – the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara – from 7th to 11th September, 2018.
- Source India, with 75 Indian participating companies, is a multi-product pavilion though some of the key potential areas for increasing trade with Turkey are ceramics, cereals and machinery or mechanical appliances.
- Turkey’s ceramic imports from the world is USD 339.8 million and only USD 16.6 million from India and India exports more than USD1.2 billion worth of ceramic products to the world.
- India exports cereals worth USD 91.6 million to Turkey compared to Turkey’s import of USD 1.7 billion worth of cereals from the world.
- India has the capacity to increase its export in this sector as it is currently exporting USD7.3 billion worth of cereals to the world.
STATIC PORTION – HISTORY+ ART & CULTURE
Mahajanapadas & Rise of Magadha
- Budhhist literature Angutara Nikaya gives a list of 16 great kingdoms or Mahajanapadas in the begining of 6th century B.C
- Major reason of the formation of Janapadas was use of Iron tools for agricultural & military purposes
- In course of time small or weak kingdoms either submitted to stronger rulers or got eliminated. Finally in 6th century BC only 4 major kingdoms survived:
- Shifted kuru clan with capital Kaushambi
- Most powerful ruler was Udayana
- After his death Vatsa was annexed to Avanti
- Most important ruler was Pradyota
- Patronized Buddhism
- Finally was annexed to Magadha
- Most famous ruler was Prasenjit whose sister was married to Bimbisara
- Prasenjit gave Kasi as dowry to Magadha
- After his death Kosala became part of Magadha
- Famous rulers were
- Most powerful kingdom of north India & founded by Jarasangha
- Bimbisara, Ajatashatru →(Haryankas)
|Avanti||Ujjain & Mahismati|
|Kuru||Hatinapur & Indraprastha|
|Panchala||Kampilya & Ahichattra|
|Kosala||Ayodhya & Sravasti|
|Mallas||Pava & Kusinagar|
Rise of Magadha
Bimbisara (546 – 494 BC)
- Contemporary of both Buddhism & jainism + Set up his capital at Rajgir (Known as Girivraja)
- Strengthened his position by marriage alliances (Kosala, lichhavi (Vaishali) & madra clan (Punjab))
- Acquired Anga under the viceroyality of Ajatashatru (Born of Lachhavi Princess)
- Fought with Pradyota of Avanti but later became friends
- Killed his father & succeeded to the throne
- Fought with Kosala & Vaishali (Lichhavis – destroyed it in 16 years) & won both war
- Embraced buddhism & led the foundation for 1st Budhhist council at Rajgir
- Succesor of Ajatashatru + Founded new capital at Pataliputra
- His death marked the end of Haryanka dynasty
- Temporary shifted the capital to Vaishali
- Defeated Avanti & bought end to 100 year old rivalry
- Transferred capital from Vaishali to Patliputra
- Known as Ekarat (sole king who destroy others)
- Conquered Kalinga & bought image of Jina as trophy
- Hathigumpha inscription of kharavela King (Kalinga) refers to conquest of Kalinga by Nandas
- Last ruler of Nanda dynasty
- During his reign, Alexander invaded India but did not move ahead to east (Nanda’s Power)
- Chandragupta Maurya & Kautilya overthrew him as oppressive way of tax collection was already resented by people
Cause of Magadha’s Success
- Advantageous geographical position & rich iron ores of Rajgir
- Capitals: Rajgir (Surrounded by 5 hills) + Patliputra (Surrounded by Ganga, Gandhak, Son & Ghagra river → True Jaladurga)
- Magadha → 1st used elephants in war against enemies
Gupta Age Art & Culture
Guptas were Bramhanical by Religion (Hindus) with special devotion to Vishnu. They showed exemplary tolerance for both Buddhism and Jainism. Gupta Coins – king on one side & goddess on the other.
- Golden Age of Indian Architecture
- Described as ‘classic’ in sense of degree of perfection it achieved
- Also marked as the climax stage of Buddhist caves & monasteries esp. in western central India
- Nagara & Dravidian styles of Temple making evolved during this period
- Mural paintings of Ajanta, which mainly depicted life stories of Buddha as in Jtaka stories belong to this period
- One new school was added i.e. Sarnath school of sculpture
- Noteworthy example is Sultanganj Buddha (7.5 ft in height) – (Near Bhagalpur in Bihar)
- Buddha images in Sarnath have plain transparent drapery covering both shoulders
- Halo around the head has very little ornamentation
Gupta Temple Architecture
- Gupta period marks the beginning of Indian temple architecture.
- Manuals were written regarding how to form temples.
- The Gupta temples were of five main types:
- Square building with flat roof
- Shallow pillared porch
- Sanctum (garbhagriha) at the center of the temple
- A single entrance & porch (Mandapa)
- Mandapa appears to originate 1st from here
- Vishnu Varaha temples at Eran (MP)
- Square temple with a squat tower (shikhara) above;
- Pillared approach, a high platform at the base
- ladkhan at Aihole (Karnataka)
- An elaboration of the first type
- Addition of an ambulatory (paradakshina) around the sanctum
- Sometimes a second story is present
- Dasavatara temple (Deogarh, Jhansi)
- Most unique achievement of this stage was “Curvilinear tower” i.e. “Shikhara”.
- “Nagara Style” temple making is said to be the success of third stage of temple making.
- Rectangular temple with an apsidal back
- Barrel-vaulted roof above
- Ex. Kapoteswara temple at Cezarla (Andhra Pradesh)
- Circular temples with shallow rectangular projection
- Maniyar Math shrine at Rajgir, Bihar
- Sanskrit became primary language in Gupta period
- Ramayana & Mahabharata were compiled during this period
|Kalidasa||Abhigyanshakuntalam, Malvikagnimitram, Vikramorvasiya, Kumarsambhava, Raghuvamsa, Ritusamhara, Meghaduta|
|Vishakadatta||Mudrarakshash & Devi – Chandraguptam|
|Sudraka||Mrich – chakatika (Little clay art or toy cart)|
|Amarsimha||Amarkosha (Lexicon in sanskrit)|
|Dandin||Kavyadarsa & Desa – kumarcharita|
Gupta Science & Technology
|Aryabhatta||Aryabhatiyam , Suryasidhhanta|
|Varahmitra||Panch sidhhanta (5 astronomical system)Brihadsamhita, Brihadjataka (Astrology)|
|Vagbhata||AshtangasamgrahaSummary of 8 branches of Medicine|